Writing About Literature (Pt. 3: Support)

Throughout the body of your paper, you will support or explore your main point or thesis. To do this, you will alternate between providing summary and analysis. In other words, you will spend some of your time pointing out relevant passages from the texts you are discussing, and you will spend more of your time explaining why those passages matter and how they relate to the main point of your paper.

Summarizing Texts

If you suspect that your reader may not be familiar with the work of literature you are discussing, you may wish to summarize the entire text before moving forward with your discussion. Summarizing a text usually involves describing key elements of the work (e.g., plot, characters, setting, themes, tone, and style) and focusing on details that are relevant to your thesis. Keep such summaries brief, as the majority of your paper should be devoted to analysis of the text in question.

If your reader is familiar with the text you are discussing, there’s still a good chance that you’ll need to provide some degree of summary. The difference, however, is that instead of sketching out the entire work, you might want to draw your reader’s attention to a specific passage in the work in order to analyze its significance in relation to your thesis. If the passage you’re examining includes a particularly moving or well-written line, your summary might also include a direct quotation. When you summarize a text or include a direct quotation, be sure to provide a citation so your reader knows where to find the passage you are discussing.

In addition to summarizing passages from the main text you are discussing (a.k.a. the “primary text”), you will also need to summarize material from any outside sources you are using to support or explore your argument (the “secondary texts”). To summarize a secondary text, provide your reader with some context by explaining the main point of the secondary text (in other words, its thesis), and then draw your reader’s attention to specific elements of the secondary text that are most relevant to your thesis.

As with your use of primary texts, you may wish to include direct quotations from the secondary text, particularly if the critic or scholar has stated a point in a particularly effective way. Be sure to cite any ideas or direct quotations you take from secondary texts.

Analyzing Texts

Each time you provide the reader with summary, you should follow it immediately with analysis. That is, you should explain how the passage you just described or quoted relates either to the main point of your paper or to a supporting point that you are making in a specific part of your paper. If you get stuck, you can ask yourself some basic questions like, “What attracted me to this particular passage?” or “How is this passage related to the point I’m making?”

Your analysis can take several forms. In the early stages of your academic career, it will likely involve explaining how a detail from an outside source supports your main point. As your writing advances, you will probably start to bring in opposing voices—scholars and critics who argue points contrary to yours. In such cases, your analysis will involve constructing counter-arguments or using such opposing voices to complicate your position and thus to bring greater depth to your argument.

One other form of analysis you can perform with primary and secondary texts is called synthesis. In its most basic form, synthesis means taking two differing ideas or terms and creating something new from them. As far as writing a paper is concerned, it’s usually a matter of placing two ideas or texts next to each other and explaining what happens when we consider them together. For example, if you read Moby Dick alongside Hindu mythology, you’re bound to come up with an interpretation of the novel that’s different from one you’d get if you read Moby Dick alone. Just what that interpretation is would be up to you as a scholar—and explaining that interpretation is a form of analysis.

Remember that for every instance of summary you provide, you also need to provide analysis. In fact, your paper should consist of more analysis than summary. As a rule, every time you provide details about a primary or secondary source, you should then explain why those details matter in relation to your thesis. To put it another way, the body of your paper will consist largely of alternating between saying (in effect): here’s a detail, here’s why it matters, here are some more details, here’s why they matter, here’s some information from an outside sources, here’s how it relates to my primary text, and here’s why it matters to my main argument. (And so on, and so on.)

Throughout your paper, be sure to stay focused on the text in question. In other words, if your paper is on Moby Dick and you start explaining something about Hindu mythology somewhere on page three, you better draw a clear connection between both topics right away, or your reader will be lost.

Recap

The main thing to remember when you’re writing a paper for a literature course is that you’re not just letting your professor know that you did the reading. Rather, you’re making a point about the text. To do this, you will need to alternate between summarizing portions of the text and analyzing them, as well as summarizing ideas from outside sources and explaining how they relate to your main point or thesis. In other words, you’re constantly alternating between saying here’s what happened and here’s why it matters.

Writing About Literature (Pt. 2: Thesis)

When you’re writing a paper for a literature course, you need to do more than summarize the text. In other words, don’t just tell your professor what happens in a particular work of literature. Instead, make an argument about that work of literature. While you will certainly include a little bit of summary in your paper, your main job is to make a point about the text. You should make this point fairly early in your paper, usually in the first paragraph. More often than not, your thesis will appear at the end of your first paragraph.

There are several ways to develop a thesis. In some instances, your professor might pose a question in the instructions to an assignment; in its most basic form, the answer to this question will be your thesis. In other instances, your professor might pose challenging questions for discussion in the classroom or online; if you keep a record of these questions, you can use the one that interests you most as a basis for your thesis. Alternately, there’s a good chance that you’ll come up with your own questions while you’re reading a work of literature; when a question occurs to you, make a note of it so that you can use the question later as the basis for your thesis.

As the strategies above suggest, one way to think about a thesis is that it’s an answer to a question. Keep in mind, however, that your question needs to be big enough to meet the minimum page requirement of the assignment, yet focused enough to keep your project manageable. For example, a question like “When did Herman Melville write Moby Dick?” doesn’t leave much room for investigation, and a question like “What does Moby Dick reveal about the meaning of life?” is far too broad of a question for anything shorter than a multi-volume work. You might, however, produce a reasonably concise paper with a question like, “How does knowing about the transcendental movement of the nineteenth century help us to understand Ahab’s quest for the whale?”

One last thing to keep in mind is that your thesis isn’t simply a statement of opinion. Sticking with my previous example, “Moby Dick is a long and boring novel” would not make a good thesis. Neither, for that matter, would “Moby Dick is rightfully considered a classic work of American literature.” In fact, your paper should avoid heaping either praise or disparagement upon the text you are discussing. Rather, as discussed above, you should focus your efforts on making a point about the text in order to reveal something that is not apparent at first glance.

(Continued tomorrow.)

Writing About Literature (Pt. 1: Reading)

When you write a paper for a literature course, you will use many of the skills that you learned in College Composition. Specifically, you will engage with texts by reading actively, you will perform research to complement your reading of primary texts, you will advance and support a thesis or main point regarding a text, you will employ a combination of summary and analysis to support your main point, and you will document any outside sources that you use in your writing.

Active Reading

Before you start writing a paper for a literature course, it goes without saying that you should be reading the texts assigned for the course. One thing worth noting, however, is that the kind of reading you do in a literature course is most likely different from reading that you do for pleasure. In a literature course, you’re not simply reading a story to see what happens next. Instead, you’re mining the text for layers of meaning, examining the text from different perspectives, and engaging with the text in order to discover what it reveals about our world and the human condition.

One way to think about active reading is to borrow an image from Ernest Hemingway and imagine the text as an iceberg. The tip of the metaphorical iceberg—the part that everyone can see—consists of everything that a cursory reading of the text reveals: plot, setting, and characters. The majority of our iceberg, however, is submerged beneath the surface, and your job as a student in a literature course is to read for more than the bare facts of the story. Your job is to plunge beneath the surface, to explore the massive, submerged portion of the iceberg, and to come up with interesting things to say about the text.

There are a few things you can do to ensure that you are reading actively. First, don’t be afraid to write in your book (unless, of course, it’s a library book). If a passage jumps out at you for any reason, place brackets around it and draw an asterisk in the margin. If it reminds you of something else you’ve read or an issue that you’ve been thinking about, write a note in the margin. If it makes you scratch your head in wonder, draw a question mark next to the passage. Or if it raises a more specific question, write that question down. It may lead you to an interesting thesis when you eventually start to work on your paper.

Another way to make sure that you’re reading actively is to keep a reading journal or simply to make notes whenever you read. In addition to transcribing your comments from the margins of the text into a notebook, you can also reflect upon the work that you’ve just read. What was your reaction to it? What issues did it raise in your mind? How might you connect the text to others you’ve read for this class? Better yet, how might you connect the text you’ve just read to texts and issues from other classes or even the outside world? As soon as you finish reading something, set a timer for five minutes and write down everything that comes to mind. Don’t stop writing until the timer goes off.

 To supplement your active reading, you can (and probably should) also do some outside reading. This outside reading can take many forms: looking up words that you don’t know, researching the historical context of a particular work, reading other works by the same author, looking into the issues and themes that you’ve noticed in the text, and examining what scholars and critics have said about the text in question. As you do your outside reading, continue to take notes and ask questions—and do your best to draw connections between the text you started with (a.k.a. the “primary text”) and the outside readings (the “secondary texts”).

Remember: Reading a text in a literature course is different from reading for pleasure. It’s a lot more rigorous, but if you’re the kind of person who likes to draw connections between literature and the world at large, it can also be a lot more rewarding. The key to this endeavor is to read actively—that is, to read for more than just the superficial details of a story and, instead, to explore what’s lurking beneath the surface. Active reading is the first step in writing about literature.

(Continued tomorrow.)